TR3010 and FO3043 Theory and research methods
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The seminar on text and image analysis: content and discourse
Theory and research methods, TR3010 and FÖ3043 11th March 2022 10–12 in Room 328 and on Zoom
Anne DiFrancesco, D., & Young, N. (2011). Seeing climate change: The visual construction of global warming in Canadian national print media. Cultural geographies, 18(4), 517-536.
Drisko, J. W., & Maschi, T. (2015). Content analysis. Oxford University Press. (Ch. 4) Pollach, I. (2011). Online privacy as a corporate social responsibility: an empirical study.
Business Ethics: A European Review, 20(1), 88–102
Dinçer, M. Z., & Alrawadieh, Z. (2017). Negative word of mouse in the hotel industry: A content analysis of online reviews on luxury hotels in Jordan. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 26(8), 785–804.
Neuendorf, K. A. (2016). The content analysis guidebook. Sage. (Ch. 1)
Read about analysis of text and images and examples of content and discourse analysis in the literature and do the following:
Think about an aim for your study and decide which kind of material you are going to collect. It can be just text, images or both. You also need to decide if your analysis will be data-driven or theory-driven. Feel free to follow the same procedure from a published academic source (chapter or article), but with different material. If you used this method before, please pick a new technique in order to improve your skills (e.g. if you did a content analysis with pictures before, please use text and vice versa).
In this assignment you will first use a content analysis to collect and categorise your data and then a discourse analysis to analyse it so that you can try both techniques.
The indicative steps are the following:
Stage 1: coding
Code your texts and break down into a content analysis – use Excel sheet to describe the content (the categories, potential subcategories and the number of instances in which you encounter them).
Stage 2: analyse what you found
Describe the major representations found in your content analysis and discuss the message of the representations.
These questions should be answered in your analysis:
- What is shown/described and why? (Landscapes, products, feelings, objects?)
- Who is represented/described (actors)? What are they doing, how do they look, what are their social roles? Where is the information placed? Is it easy to find? Is it hidden?
- What/who is left out/missing? (What could have been present?)
- What is the main target group? (Based on the material and not on your opinion)
- What are the potential conflicts/power imbalances reproduced through the analysed material?
- What is the dominant discourse in the material? – are there any counter-discourses?
Stage 3: reporting
Write a report on your content and discourse analysis and how you went about conducting your assignment step by step. Remember that the more detailed you are with your steps, the more reliable your procedure gets. Describe the selection of material and the results of your analysis.
You should write at least 1500 words (about three pages) of written text (Word document) describing, summarising and discussing the analysis and an additional Excel sheet showing the content analysis. Upload your report and your Excel sheet on Learn by Friday March 11th at 8 am at the latest.
Prepare a short presentation of your material and make a Power Point presentation where you describe the steps of your analysis and your result. The presentation must not take longer than 5 minutes to complete. Please practice your presentation beforehand. This is a good training for you in keeping the time and it also facilitates the proceeding of the seminar without delays.
In order to pass you need to:
- Write your text academically in an understandable manner and you should not be doing too much guessing without supporting your statements on facts (this is a short assignment though, so some degree of educated guessing is acceptable)
- Show that you have understood how a content analysis works and explain well the coding process in your Excel table
- Have prepared a Power Point (or other presentation software) of your work
- Discuss your findings with the help of the given literature and at least one external source (academic source and published)