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Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Main body. 3

Conclusion. 6

Reference list 7


The attachment of dyes to tissues involves the formation of chemical bonds developed between dyes and tissues. Dyes are organic-colored chemicals that bind to tissues selectively. All dyes contain a chromophore and auxo chrome. The chromophore is the substance that absorbs visible light and auxo chromes are responsible for allowing the binding of the OH group to the tissue. The current study has selected Haematoxylin and Eosin for H&E stain to accomplish the entire research. The study intends to deliver the pathological features of normal and abnormal tissues based on the functioning of H&E dye with tissues.

Thesis statement: H&E helps in differentiating the nuclei and cytoplasm of cells and aids in the detection of abnormal mass formation to detect the occurrence of abnormal tissue masses.

Main body

Relevant examples of certain diseases to locate the features of pathology of abnormal and normal tissues

The technology of hyperspectral imaging or HSI has the potential to deliver useful data about the chemical composition of abnormal and normal tissues. The morphological features can be detected with the use of this technology in single imaging. With the use of HSI and H&E stains together, the appearance of non-tumor tissues and automatic differentiation of glioblastoma to detect the histological features of human brain tissues can be detected (Ortega et al. 2020). Hematoxylin and Eosin is one of the effective stains that are used in the detection of the features of diseases in the pathology of abnormal and normal tissue. The use of Hematoxylin and Eosin has significant importance in the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease (Tumwine, Wabinga and Odida, 2004). The stain is able to detect the abnormal development of white blood cells or lymphocytes. Hematoxylin and Eosin are the most commonly used stains that aid the detection of certain diseases. The development of virtual stains from existing images of H&E facilitates the diagnosis of certain non-neoplastic diseases of the kidney (de Haan et al. 2021). The approaches of H&E imaging basically focus on the elimination of the fixation of abnormal tissues from the workflow and target rapid intraoperative contrast in order to unfix the given specimens. In developing nations, the staining of H&E is one of the key elements that help in the detection of Hirschsprung disease or HSCR (Setiadi et al. 2017). The main findings related to the staining of H&E are connected with the development of hypertrophy of nerve fibers. It can be seen that in normal and non-HSCR tissues, intrinsic nerve fibers can be detected and in abnormal tissues proliferation of the fibers can be seen (Setiadi et al. 2017).

The attachment mechanism of H&E to tissues

H&E is known to be the “workhouse” in the routine stain in the field of histology. The combination of H&E stains produces violet, blue and red colors. Hematoxylin is known as a dark purple cationic dye and has the capability to stain the chromatin or nuclear material within the cell. On the other hand, Eosin is an anionic dye with the color of organic pink to red. Eosin is able to stain cytoplasmic material including collagen, and connective tissue.

Figure 1: Staining of tissue with the help of H&E stain

The use of H&E stains has continued for many years and the stain is still essential in the recognition of certain types of tissue. The stain is able to detect the morphological changes that establish the basis of the diagnosis of cancer (Fischer et al. 2008). Eosin is an acidic dye that negatively charges and stains the basic structures of tissue to red or pink. DNA lying in the nucleus, RNA lying in ribosomes, and rough endoplasmic reticulum are acidic and hematoxylin stains hematoxylin in purple color (Chan, 2014). The mordant of Haematoxylin first binds to the tissue and following that Haematoxylin binds to the tissue and forms a tissue-mordant-hematoxylin bond (Ortiz-Hidalgo and Pina-Oviedo, 2018). On the other hand, basically, eosin binds to the cell components that are basic in nature and it ideally binds to the proteins that are located in the cytoplasm (Xiaokun Li, 2018). There are three types of solutions hematoxylin that can be used for the differentiation of normal and abnormal tissues including Mayer’s Haematoxylin, Ehrlich’s Haematoxylin, and Harry’s Haematoxylin.

Figure 2: Staining by Haematoxylin

(Source: Chan, 2014)

Mention and compare the abnormal and normal tissue features

H&E is one of the widely employed techniques in the field of histology and pathology for distinguishing cytoplasm and nuclei located in tissue by staining them into different colors. This particular process is beneficial and aids the diagnosis of the formational abnormal tissues by facilitating the contrast through the use of the digital microscope (Kuru, 2014). The use of H&E stain aids in the formation of additional contrasts to see different components of both abnormal and normal tissue. In the context of detecting cancer, H&E stains help in detecting the abnormal tissue structures of cytoplasm and cell nuclei. In this way, H&E helps in differentiating normal and abnormal tissues. In healthy or normal tissue, cells remain in a constant position and maintain the function of the tissue (Krafts, 2010). Conversely, abnormal tissues which can also be called tumor cells might be of many types including malignant, begin, or lipoma (Brazier, 2019). H&E helps pathologists by providing a very detailed and clear view of the tissue. H&E clearly stains the structure of cells such as the nucleus, cytoplasm, extra-cellular components, and organelles to detect the abnormal formation of any tissue that might be associated with the development of cancers (American Cancer Society, 2015).

BS7203 Liver case study

The table below contains the clinical chemistry results from the plasma and urine of a patient with suspected liver disease.  Answer the following questions (1-3) and submit them to the moodle site BS7203 under liver case study exercise.

Please remember to use your own words as turnitin will reveal if you have simply taken your answers from other students or from the internet.


1). Looking at the information provided in Table 1 below and your knowledge of liver function and dysfunction.  (a) State if the patient has either;  pre, intra or post hepatic disease or no disease and briefly explaining why. (b) Identify the most likely liver disease based on the information in the Table and the brief case history and suggest the likely cause of the liver disease. (40marks)

2). Use your knowledge of liver function and dysfunction to write a more comprehensive case history of the individual in this case. This case history will have a summary of what symptoms would have led the patient to visit the doctor and information about their background such as what could have caused the condition. (30 marks)

3). Complete the Table below by adding the actual reference values you would expect (values can be found on the internet or in clinical chemistry textbooks) for each parameter and then in the last column estimate the most likely patient plasma value including units for a patient in that situation, so for example if serum albumin is normal (N) then it should be 40-45g/L.  (30marks)

Brief case history: A 50-year-old woman presented to her doctor with abdominal distension for 2 weeks associated with decreased appetite and a weightloss. There was nohistory of alcohol intake or abuse in past and she was not exposed to any hepatotoxic drugs.

Table 1 Case 2

 Case 2Reference ValueEstimate of Patient’s value
Clotting timeN  
Urine Bilirubin­  
Conjugated Bilirubin­­  
Total Bilirubin­­  

N= normal,  ­ a slight but significant increase above upper limit of normal, ­­ a large significant increase well above the upper limit of normal, ­­­ a very large and significant increase above the upper limit of normal.


H&E is the most effective stain that is used in the current times to detect the histopathology of both normal and abnormal tissues. The stain has the ability to differentiate normal tissues from abnormal tissues. The conclusion can be drawn by detecting the effective use of the stain in detecting certain diseases including cancer, Hodgskin’s disease, abnormalities of the kidney, and many others. Hence, it can be stated that the effective use of the H&E stain is supposed to aid the scope of tissue histology and help in detecting abnormal tissue masses.

Reference list

American cancer Society (2015) What do doctors look for in biopsy and cytology specimens?, Available at:

Brazier, Y. (2019) Tumors: Benign, premalignant, and malignant, Available at:

Chan, J. K. C. (2014) ‘The wonderful colors of the hematoxylin-eosin stain in diagnostic surgical pathology’, International journal of surgical pathology, 22(1), pp. 12–32. doi: 10.1177/1066896913517939.

de Haan, K. et al. (2021) ‘Deep learning-based transformation of H&E stained tissues into special stains’, Nature Communications, 12(1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25221-2.

Fischer, A. H. et al. (2008) ‘Hematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue and cell sections’, CSH protocols, 2008, p. pdb.prot4986. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot4986.

Krafts, K. P. (2010) ‘Tissue repair’, Organogenesis, 6(4), pp. 225–233. doi: 10.4161/org.6.4.12555.

Kuru, K. (2014) ‘Optimization and enhancement of H&E stained microscopical images by applying bilinear interpolation method on lab color mode’, Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling, 11, p. 9. doi: 10.1186/1742-4682-11-9.

Ortega, S. et al. (2020) ‘Hyperspectral Imaging for the Detection of Glioblastoma Tumor Cells in H&E Slides Using Convolutional Neural Networks’, Sensors, 20(7), p. 1911. doi: 10.3390/s20071911.

Ortiz-Hidalgo, C. and Pina-Oviedo, S. (2018) ‘Hematoxylin: Mesoamerica’s Gift to Histopathology. Palo de Campeche (Logwood Tree), Pirates’ Most Desired Treasure, and Irreplaceable Tissue Stain’, International Journal of Surgical Pathology, 27(1), pp. 4–14. doi: 10.1177/1066896918787652.

Setiadi, J. A. et al. (2017) ‘The utility of the hematoxylin and eosin staining in patients with suspected Hirschsprung disease’, BMC Surgery, 17(1). doi: 10.1186/s12893-017-0267-1.

Tumwine, L.-K. . K., Wabinga, H. and Odida, M. (2004) ‘Haematoxylin and eosin staining in the diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease in Uganda’, East African Medical Journal, 80(3). doi: 10.4314/eamj.v80i3.8679.

Xiaokun Li, L. (2018) Eosin – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics, Available at: (Accessed: 2 November 2022).

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