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SLE111 Cells and Genes Bioinformatics Assignment, Deakin University, Australia

Q1. What is the process by which information is transferred from a DNA to an mRNA?

Answer- The process is known as transcription. In this process, the DNA is mimicked to mRNA, which transfers the information necessary for protein synthesis. This process is divided into two steps. First, partial-mRNA is created, where the polymerase enzymes of RNA are involved. The process depends on a method of base pairing known as Watson-Crick base pairing, and the single strand RNA is formed which is the reverse of the original DNA sequence. The partial-m RNA then gets “edited” for the required mRNA molecule by a process which is known as RNA splicing.

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Q2. What is the process by which polypeptide molecules are made from an mRNA?

Answer- The process by which polypeptides are made from an mRNA is known as translation. The sequence of the nucleotides that are present on the RNA are changed into the amino acid sequence of proteins and the process that takes place is done by the ribosomes. The ribosomes and the tRNA dock and list several enzymes in an energy efficient process that occurs with the use of ATP and GTP.

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 Sequence Type of BLAST search chosen and why (2 marks each) What is the protein (coded for by the gene for a nucleic acid sequence) and in what biological process is it involved? (2 marks each)
       A Protein BLAST search was used because the gene code was a protein sequence query Ribosomal protein-Any protein that conjugates with rRNA make up theSubunits of ribosomes involved in the cellular process of translation.
       B Nucleotide BLAST was used because the gene code was a nucleotide of a DNA sequence Kinesin protein- It moves along with microtubule filaments. The active movement of this protein supports many cellular functions for exampleMitosis and many more.
       C Nucleotide BLAST is used because  gene code was a nucleotide of a RNA sequence Poly(rC)-binding protein-It plays an important role in defence response to virus such as polio virus and also helps in the metabolic processes of mRNA
       D Nucleotide blast was used because the gene code sequence was a partial mRNA Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase NM domain-like protein-It is used in flavin adenine dinucleotide binding and also helps in oxidoreductase activityby acting on the CH-CH group of donors.
 Sequence Organism scientific name(in correct binomial format) (1mark) Is the organism proprokaryote  or anEukaryote?(1 mark)                                Stop codon(writeIn cDNA format)(write N/A forProtein sequences)(1 mark) No. of nucleotides in codingSequence(write N/A forProtein sequences) (1 mark) No. of aminoacidsIn translatedSequence(1 mark)
       A  Arabidopsislyrata Eukaryote      N/A  17,352  16,606
       B  Chlamydomonasreinhardtii  Eukaryote        N/A         263,645     37,754   

Summary- This work explains how the DNA is converted to RNA and then how the formation of polypeptides takes place from RNA. Different examples have been used to explain the process.

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