Cross cultural differences CSU Assignment

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Cross cultural differences CSU Assignment

ASSIGNMENT 2

ESSAY: CROSS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES


Introduction

Human resource management is one of the most prioritised departments in an organisation, who actually works as a thread among the departments. Human resource also enables the workforce of an organisation by enabling motivation or training to the employees. However, this process differs in cross cultural environments. This study has focused on human resource activities in cross cultural setups.

Culture has always been considered as a major dimension within the workplace, as it plays a distinguished role in the practices of human resource management. Cultural diversity within the organisations is potentially capable of influencing communication. In the words of Moran, Abramson & Moran (2014), cultural context of people are solely integrated with the systems of values, communication patterns, beliefs and behaviours. Thus, it uses to control the human psyche at an extensive level. As per the organisation goals are required, the cultural background of the people often conflict to each other. There are certain degrees of cultural diversities also that cause differences among the people within an organisation as well. According to Becton, Walker & Jones‐Farmer (2014), workplace diversity is based on the range of cultural orientations of the members, who belong to diverse social groups. In most of the cases, such differences among the members create barriers fruitful communications.

Cross cultural diversity may impose communication distance among the members in a professional circuit. The major reason behind this communication gap is solely dependent on the cultural orientations they possess. Diversity is defined differently in different cultures according to the practices they prioritise. As opined by Greenberg & Colquitt (2013), each culture has a certain degree of prioritisation for skills, qualifications, family planning or may be the livelihood as well. As per the organisational work culture is concerned, such differences are often found confronting each other to create massive barriers.

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The human resource department of an organisation always plays the most effective role in enabling the workforce. The fundamental agendas and conceptual considerations of an organisation are usually derived from the human resource department, which are supposed to be followed by the employees. Human resource departments of the organisations use to work as threads between the managements and the employees. Thus, they are required to be composed in terms of enabling the people for the allotted works. Besides, they are also liable to recruit or select people that are capable of performing reliably for the organisations. In the words of Budhwar & Debrah (2013), the working premises of human resource management is extended up to different levels depending on the sizes of the companies. Maintaining the most efficient work culture and positive communications among the employees are the other most acknowledged roles of the human resources.

The role of human resource management is considered to be more intense in case it is involved in a cross cultural environment. For such situations, the human resource managers are required to play more effective roles to keep the employees be connected to each other. In this present era of globalisation, most if the organisations are expanding or intending to expand their businesses globally. Thus, the human resource managers are often found liable to play their roles dynamically and from multiple directions. In the additional words of Martín Alcázar et al. (2013), human resource management is also liable to establish communication with the partners and other stakeholders along with the government bodies. The prioritised most roles of a human resource management is promoting motivation, altering attitudes of the individuals, helping people in socialising, helping in decision-making and assisting process controlling of people behaviour. Achieving success in all these factors is solely dependent on the efficiency of the human resource management, especially in the situation of cross cultural environment. Understanding the cultures of the people existed within the workplace is always prioritised in order to enable workplace sustainability.

Performance appraisal refers to the potential enhancement of workforce of the employees. It is meant to be focused by the human resource managements of the organisations in order to enable the best possible work culture within the workplaces. As opined by Ferdman & Sagiv (2012), performance appraisal is involved with certain degrees of complexities in a cross cultural environment. These complexities are mostly based on the communication differences among the people or departments of the organisation. It is always required for a human resource management to encourage the people of an organisation to build up certain communication levels among the workers and departments so that they can work in a united ambience. Communication among the departments and people are always recommended to be enabled whether the organisational structure is hierarchical or flat. In both the organisational structures, the responsibility of the human resource management is to convey the messages to each participant.

In most of the cases, the issue of performance appraisal is initiated from the early stage of employee recruitment and selection, where the human resource management is found liable to employ the most efficient persons according to the needs of organisation. In line with that, the recruited or selected people may need training for the betterment of their performance or classes to understand their job roles. In both the cases, they are required to be communicated properly. In line with this, working with other people within an organisation is considered to another spectrum, on the basis of which performance appraisals are achieved. According to Guillaume et al. (2013), these participants always recommended to be communicated properly in order to make them fit for the post they have been appointed for.

In a cross cultural ambience, the employees use to come from diverse communities, who possess different sorts of skills, different understanding and speak different languages. The human resource managements are responsible in this regard to allow them to access the most efficient training programmes regardless of what culture the trainer belongs to. As stated by Peltokorpi & Froese (2012), the issue of performance appraisal within an organisation is also involved with the process of employee motivation, where the human resource management is required to enable this factor for the proper implementation of performance appraisal. However, it is also surrounded with certain complexities, as the motivational approaches are differently coined in diverse cultures. Thus, the human resource departments of the organisations are liable to acknowledge such diversities and consider the motivational processes for the employees according to their cultural orientations.

Occupational health and safety encompasses an extensive area of an organisation. In the current aspect of modernisation, this factor plays an indispensible role and meant to be focused on by the human resource management. As averred by Starren, Hornikx & Luijters (2013), acknowledging the issue of occupational health and safety is one of the most prioritised criteria both for the employees and their family members. Ensuring proper health and safety management within the organisations are always found effective in terms of motivating people. However, it must be consisted of the family members and relatives of the employees. In most of the cases, ensuring occupational health and safety of the employees is capable of enhance employee motivation at an extended value. In line with this, it also enables the process of employee retention policies of the organisation, which is one of the most prioritised factors for the organisations nowadays. The implementation of prior occupational health and safety management needs to be regardless of the cultural diversities of the people within it.

The issue of occupational health and safety management refers to the prevention of certain disease among the workers in an organisation. The human resource managements of the organisations are liable to implement prior strategies to prevent them according to the timely needs. It is also prioritised by the human resource managements for the purpose of avoiding epidemic disease in a geographical context. As stated by Barak (2016), there are certain diversities in the process of health and safety measurements as well depending on the culture that person belong to. In many cultures, people are not allowed to take treatments from a person of other cultural identity. On the other hand, there are few cultures, where people are dictated not to take treatments from the person with other gender identity.

Linguistic issue is another major difficulty in enabling the occupational health and safety programmes within an organisation. In the words of Ross et al. (2012) people often find difficulties in taking or providing treatments to a person with other linguistic identity. Thus, the human resource managements are required to allow the health care service providers to learn other languages also or employ people from diverse linguistic backgrounds as well. Learning gestural communication is another effective effort from the perspective of human resource management for the purpose of ensuring occupational health and safety of the employees. Employing health care providers with diverse gender identity and community can also be effective in this same context.

Conclusion

Human resource practices are considered to be the foundation of organisational behaviours largely. However, the effectiveness of their strategies and implications are found diverse in nature from one culture to another. This study has focused on this issue in a cross cultural environment and considered two most common human resource practices in order to assess the impacts of cultural differences. With the critical assessments on these two factors, this study also has recommended the further options for the human resource managements.

Reference List:

Barak, M. E. M. (2016). Managing diversity: Toward a globally inclusive workplace. California: Sage Publications.

Becton, J. B., Walker, H. J., & Jones‐Farmer, A. (2014). Generational differences in workplace behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology44(3), 175-189.

Budhwar, P. S., & Debrah, Y. A. (Eds.). (2013). Human resource management in developing countries. Abingdon: Routledge.

Ferdman, B. M., & Sagiv, L. (2012). Diversity in Organizations and Cross‐Cultural Work Psychology: What If They Were More Connected?. Industrial and Organizational Psychology5(3), 323-345.

Greenberg, J., & Colquitt, J. A. (Eds.). (2013). Handbook of organizational justice. UK: Psychology Press.

Guillaume, Y. R., Dawson, J. F., Woods, S. A., Sacramento, C. A., & West, M. A. (2013). Getting diversity at work to work: What we know and what we still don’t know. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology86(2), 123-141.

Martín Alcázar, F., Miguel Romero Fernández, P., & Sánchez Gardey, G. (2013). Workforce diversity in strategic human resource management models: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal20(1), 39-49.

Moran, R. T., Abramson, N. R., & Moran, S. V. (2014). Managing cultural differences. Abingdon: Routledge.

Peltokorpi, V., & Froese, F. J. (2012). The impact of expatriate personality traits on cross-cultural adjustment: A study with expatriates in Japan. International Business Review21(4), 734-746.

Ross, M. W., Crisp, B. R., Månsson, S. A., & Hawkes, S. (2012). Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 1(1), 105-119.

Starren, A., Hornikx, J., & Luijters, K. (2013). Occupational safety in multicultural teams and organizations: A research agenda. Safety science52, 43-49.

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