#### Electrical and Electronic Fundamentals

Table of Contents

## Assignment Brief

Unit Number and Title | 19: Electrical and Electronic Principles |

Academic Year | 2021-2022 |

Unit Tutor | H. Chebbo, M. Rana |

Assignment Title | Electrical and Electronic Fundamentals |

Issue Date | 11^{th} October 2021 |

Submission Date | 22^{nd} December 2021 |

IV Name & Date | R.Lakshmanan , 4^{th} October 2021 |

Unit Learning Outcomes | |

LO1: Apply an understanding of fundamental electrical quantities to evaluate circuits with constant voltages and currents. LO2: Evaluate circuits with sinusoidal voltages and currents. LO3: Describe the basis of semiconductor action, and its application to simple electronic devices. LO4: Explain the difference between digital and analogue electronics, describing simple applications of each. |

Assignment Brief and Guidance |

You are presented with the following tasks by the company where you train. The electric network company must carry out these tasks within a specified time limit and most importantly with the highest of standards and proficiency. To prove to the company that you are the right person to work for it you must carry out these tasks with utmost efficiency and professionalism and within the specified time limit. All the tasks involve solving AC and DC networks using the theory and practical experiences you acquired in your modules. All the tasks must be handed in one report which must be clearly and professionally presented. Scenario: Task 1 a. The circuit shown in figure 1.1 has the following element values: V= 13V, R1=3 kΩ, R2=1 kΩ, R3=3.5 kΩ. Apply Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws to analyse the circuit shown in figure 1.1 and determine the following: The voltage across R1, R2,R3The currents in R1, R2 and R3 Iii. The total power dissipated in the circuit. |

- For the circuit shown in figure 1.2, the values of the resistors are: R1=16Ω , R2=12 Ω, R3

=40 Ω ; Determine the following:

- The value of resistor Rx such that the total power dissipated in the circuit is 2.5 kw and
- The current flowing in each of the four resistors

## Figure 1.2 DC series parallel circuit with unknown Resistor

- Determine the current flowing in RL in the circuit shown in figure 1.3 using Thevenin Theorem.

The values of the resistors in the circuit of figure 1.3 are as follows:

R1=30Ω , R2=50 Ω, R3 =50 Ω , R4 = 20 Ω and RL=15 Ω

and V= 30v

Figure 1.3 DC bridge circuit

- Calculate the currents in the circuit of figure 1.4 ( where
**R1=10**Ω**, R2=4**Ω,**R3 =7**Ω ,

V1=80 V and V2=20 V) using:

- Superposition theorem
- Simulation software and

- Compare your simulated results with your analytical results.

Figure 1.4 DC circuit with two voltage sources

## Task 2

- A series RLC circuit comprises an inductor of 82 mH, a resistor of 210 Ω and a capacitor of 24 uF. If a sinusoidal current of 40mA at 50hz flows in the circuit of figure 2.1,

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine :

- Voltage dropped across the resistor
- Voltage dropped across the capacitor

- Voltage dropped across the inductor

- The impedance of the circuit

- The supply voltage

- the phase angle

- Draw phasor diagram for the RLC series AC circuit in figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1 RLC series AC circuit

- A coil of 2 k Ω resistance and 0.2 H inductance is connected in parallel with a 0.04 µF capacitor across a 40 V, 6 kHz AC supply as shown in figure 2.2.

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine the following:

I. The current in the coil

ii. The current in the capacitor.

Iii. Draw the phasor diagram and measure the supply current and its phase angle; and check the answer by calculation

- The circuit impedance
- The power consumed

Figure 2.2 RLC parallel AC circuit

- A coil of 1 k Ω resistance and 0.1 H inductance is connected in parallel with a variable capacitor across a 2.0 V,10kHz AC supply as shown in figure 2.3.

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine the following:

I. the capacitance of the capacitor when the supply current is a minimum

ii. The effective impedance ZT of the circuit at resonance.

Iii. The Q-factor

- The bandwidth
- the current in each branch
- The supply current

Figure 2.3 RLC parallel AC resonant circuit

## Task 3

- Describe the behaviour of a Diode, and draw its characteristics in terms of voltage and currents.

- Demonstrate the action of the following semiconductor devices:
- Diode (refer to figure 3.1(a) and (b) )
- Measure and record the voltage and current across the diode for each entry in table 3.1 a and b.

- Diode (refer to figure 3.1(a) and (b) )

- Use the data of tables 3.1 a and b to draw the diode curve (V versus I)
- Explain the diode curve from step 2

Figure 3.1 diode forward and reverse bias circuits

Table 3.1a forward bias

Vs | Measure VD | Measure ID |

0 | ||

0.5 | ||

1 | ||

2 | ||

4 | ||

6 | ||

8 | ||

10 | ||

15 |

Table 3.1b reverse bias

Vs | VD | ID |

-5 | ||

-10 | ||

-15 |

- Zener diode (Refer to figure 3.2)
- Measure and record the output voltages across zener diode for each entry in table 3.2

- With the data in table 3.2, draw the reverse zener curve

Figure 3.2 Zener diode circuit

Table 3.2 Data for Zener diode

Vin | Vout | Iz |

0 | ||

2 | ||

4 | ||

6 | ||

8 | ||

10 | ||

12 | ||

14 |

- Bipolar Transistor as switch (refer to figure 3.3)

- Measure 𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 = 0𝑉 and 10𝑉 and record the results in Table 6.1.
- Measure 𝐼𝐶 and 𝐼𝐵 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is 10𝑉 and record the results in Table 6.1.

- Explain your results.

Figure 3.3 Bipolar transistor as switch

Table 3.3 Bipolar transistor voltage and current measurement

𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is 0𝑉 | 𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is 10𝑉 | 𝐼𝐶 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is10𝑉 | 𝐼𝐵 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is 10𝑉 | |

measuremen t |

- Explain the operation of the diode in the full-wave bridge rectifier, the zener diode in a voltage stabiliser and the bipolar transistor as an amplifier.

- Analyse the performance of Bipolar and FET transistors in terms of simple semiconductor theory, suggesting appropriate applications for each.

### Task 4

a. Explain the difference between digital and analogue electronics. Illustrate your answer with

examples.

- Explain the amplifier characteristics in term of gain, bandwidth, input and output resistance and distortion level.

- Explain the operation of the circuit in figure 4 and determine the Truth table for the following combinational logic gates circuit in figure 4.

- Name the logic function of the combinational logic gate circuit in figure 4.

- Explain the benefits of using analogue and digital devices and circuits using examples

Evaluate the applications of analogue and digital electronics in Audio systems.

Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria | ||

Pass | Merit | Distinction |

LO1 Apply an understanding of fundamental electrical quantities to analyse circuits with constant voltages and currents | D1 Evaluate the operation of a range of circuits with constant sources using relevant circuit theories | |

P1 Apply the principles of circuit theory to simple circuits with constant sources, to explain the operation of that circuit. | M1 Apply the principles of circuit theory to a range of circuits with constant sources, to explain the operation of that circuit. | |

LO2 Analyse simple circuits with sinusoidal voltages and currents | D2 Analyse the operation and behaviour of series and parallel RLC circuits, including resonance and using the principles of circuit theory with sinusoidal sources. | |

P2 Analyse series RLC circuits, using the principles of circuit theory with sinusoidal sources. | M2 Analyse series and parallel RLC circuits, using the principles of circuit theory with sinusoidal sources. | |

LO3 Describe the basis of semiconductor action, and its application to simple electronic devices | D3 Analyse the performance of a range of discrete semiconductor devices in terms of simple semiconductor theory, and suggest appropriate applications for each. | |

P3 Describe the behaviour of a p-n junction in terms of semiconductor behaviour. P4 Demonstrate the action of a range of semiconductor devices. | M3 Explain the operation of a a range of discrete semiconductor devices in terms of simple semiconductor theory. | |

LO4 Explain the difference between digital and analogue electronics, describing simple applications of each | D4 Evaluate the use of analogue and digital devices and circuits using examples | |

P5 Explain the difference between digital and analogue electronics. P6 Explain amplifier characteristics. P7 Explain the operation of a simple circuit made | M4 Explain the benefits of using analogue and digital electronics devices using with examples. |

of logic gates. |