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#### Electrical and Electronic Fundamentals

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Table of Contents

## Assignment Brief

• For the circuit shown in figure 1.2, the values of the resistors are: R1=16Ω , R2=12 Ω, R3

=40 Ω ; Determine the following:

1. The value of resistor Rx such that the total power dissipated in the circuit is 2.5 kw and
1. The current flowing in each of the four resistors

## Figure 1.2 DC series parallel circuit with unknown Resistor

• Determine the current flowing in RL in the circuit shown in figure 1.3 using Thevenin Theorem.

The values of the resistors in the circuit of figure 1.3 are as follows:

R1=30Ω , R2=50 Ω, R3 =50 Ω , R4 = 20 Ω and RL=15 Ω

and V= 30v

Figure 1.3 DC bridge circuit

• Calculate the currents in the circuit of figure 1.4 ( where R1=10 Ω , R2=4 Ω, R3 =7 Ω ,

V1=80 V and V2=20 V) using:

1. Superposition theorem
1. Simulation software and
1. Compare your simulated results with your analytical results.

Figure 1.4 DC circuit with two voltage sources

## Task 2

1. A series RLC circuit comprises an inductor of 82 mH, a resistor of 210 Ω and a capacitor of 24 uF. If a sinusoidal current of 40mA at 50hz flows in the circuit of figure 2.1,

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine :

1. Voltage dropped across the resistor
1. Voltage dropped across the capacitor
1. Voltage dropped across the inductor
1. The impedance of the circuit
1. The supply voltage
1. the phase angle
1. Draw phasor diagram for the RLC series AC circuit in figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1 RLC series AC circuit

• A coil of 2 k Ω resistance and 0.2 H inductance is connected in parallel with a 0.04 µF capacitor across a 40 V, 6 kHz AC supply as shown in figure 2.2.

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine the following:

I. The current in the coil

ii. The current in the capacitor.

Iii. Draw the phasor diagram and measure the supply current and its phase angle; and check the answer by calculation

1. The circuit impedance
2. The power consumed

Figure 2.2 RLC parallel AC circuit

• A coil of 1 k Ω resistance and 0.1 H inductance is connected in parallel with a variable capacitor across a 2.0 V,10kHz AC supply as shown in figure 2.3.

Analyse the operation of the circuit and determine the following:

I. the capacitance of the capacitor when the supply current is a minimum

ii. The effective impedance ZT of the circuit at resonance.

Iii. The Q-factor

1. The bandwidth
2. the current in each branch
3. The supply current

Figure 2.3 RLC parallel AC resonant circuit

## Task 3

1. Describe the behaviour of a Diode, and draw its characteristics in terms of voltage and currents.
• Demonstrate the action of the following semiconductor devices:
• Diode (refer to figure 3.1(a) and (b) )
• Measure and record the voltage and current across the diode for each entry in table 3.1 a and b.
• Use the data of tables 3.1 a and b to draw the diode curve (V versus I)
• Explain the diode curve from step 2

Figure 3.1 diode forward and reverse bias circuits

Table 3.1a forward bias

Table 3.1b reverse bias

1. Zener diode (Refer to figure 3.2)
1. Measure and record the output voltages across zener diode for each entry in table 3.2
• With the data in table 3.2, draw the reverse zener curve

Figure 3.2 Zener diode circuit

Table 3.2 Data for Zener diode

1. Bipolar Transistor as switch (refer to figure 3.3)
1. Measure 𝑉𝑂𝑈𝑇 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 = 0𝑉 and 10𝑉 and record the results in Table 6.1.
1. Measure 𝐼𝐶 and 𝐼𝐵 when 𝑉𝐼𝑁 is 10𝑉 and record the results in Table 6.1.
1. Explain your results.

Figure 3.3 Bipolar transistor as switch

Table 3.3 Bipolar transistor voltage and current measurement

• Explain the operation of the diode in the full-wave bridge rectifier, the zener diode in a voltage stabiliser and the bipolar transistor as an amplifier.
• Analyse the performance of Bipolar and FET transistors in terms of simple semiconductor theory, suggesting appropriate applications for each.

### Task 4

a. Explain the difference between digital and analogue electronics. Illustrate your answer with

examples.

• Explain the amplifier characteristics in term of gain, bandwidth, input and output resistance and distortion level.
• Explain the operation of the circuit in figure 4 and determine the Truth table for the following combinational logic gates circuit in figure 4.
• Name the logic function of the combinational logic gate circuit in figure 4.
• Explain the benefits of using analogue and digital devices and circuits using examples

Evaluate the applications of analogue and digital electronics in Audio systems.