CHCECE021 Implement strategies for the inclusion of all children

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February 5, 2019

CHCECE021 Implement strategies for the inclusion of all children

Theory Assessment

CHCECE021 Implement strategies for the inclusion of all children

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UNIT:   CHCECE021 Implement strategies for the inclusion of all children

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STUDENT DECLARATION This assignment is all my own work, no part has been written for me by another person.No part has been copied from another person’s work except where referenced (including books, journals and the internet).I have a copy of this assignment which I can produce if the original is lost or damaged.I fully understand what I am required to do to complete these assessment tasks successfully   Signature:Click here to enter text.                             Date:  Click here to enter text.

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Assessor’s overall comment:

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ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE LEARNER

This booklet contains assessment questions and activities which allow you to provide evidence toward gaining this qualification.  Before you complete this assessment, you should review the information in your e-book learner guide. It is a compulsory requirement to provide reference(s) if requested in the assignment question.

TIPS FOR SUCCESS

  • Read more than just the learner guide – you can use books, journal articles, websites (not Wikipedia)
  • Write in your own words – think about what you have read and then use your words to explain what you have learned.
  • Never copy and paste – this is not your work and is a severe form of cheating called plagiarism.
  • If you are unsure what the question means, then you should ask your trainer.

ASSESSMENT

You must complete all activities in the assignment to the required standard.  This will contribute to a final evaluation of competence, which includes this theory assessment and further performance evidence, for example, a work placement or simulated tasks in the classroom.  The assessor will explain clearly the required performance standards.

Your trainer will give you feedback, and you may be awarded an Academic Pass, or Not Yet Satisfactory.  If you are Not Yet Satisfactory, you will have an opportunity to resubmit the assessment to be reassessed.

Academic Pass Participants whose answers predominantly display competent knowledge and skills related to the assessment of the unit. All assessments components of the unit are required to have been assessed as satisfactory to achieve an overall academic competency of the unit.
Not Yet Satisfactory / Please Resubmit Participants whose answers display a lack of understanding, skills and knowledge related to specific assessments of the unit will be considered Not Yet Satisfactory for that assessment/ assignment of the unit. Participants will be required to resubmit that assessment again to achieve a satisfactory result. 

PLAGIARISM

Plagiarism is serious academic misconduct.  It is taking someone else’s thoughts, writing or inventions and representing them as your own.  Plagiarism may result in failure or exclusion from a course. Plagiarism is:

  • presenting work by another person as your own work, whether intentionally or unintentionally;
  • handing in assessments which are markedly similar to or copied from another student; and/or
  • submitting assessments without adequate acknowledgement of the sources used, i.e. without referencing.
  • inadequate acknowledgement of the sources used, i.e. without referencing.

Tips to avoid plagiarism – ‘Be sure to write it in your own words’.

 Original version

My parents impressed on me the values that you work hard for what you want in life

Plagiarised version

My parents taught me that you work hard for what you want in life

Acceptable version

Growing up, my parents showed me the importance of a good work ethic 

Additional Resources

These are additional resources that supplement your Learner guide. These videos and online reading links (resources) will help you further understand some of the core concepts in this unit of competency.

Belonging, being & becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia

Curriculum decision making for inclusive practice

Children’s resilience: Working with the early years learning framework

 Victorian early years learning and development framework practice principle guide 4: Equity and diversity

Inclusion and diversity

Inclusive practices

 Including Aboriginal Australia in your service

Encouraging cultural and linguistic diversity in your service

Our ‘philosophy’

Embracing diversity in families

How do we understand culture identity?

‘Playing fair – gender equity in child care’

Exploring celebrations in children’s services

 Cross cultural differences and respecting others

 Understanding specific learning disabilities

 Cerebral palsy

 Deafblindness

Hearing impairment

 Learning impairment

Observing children

 Early identification of children with additional needs

‘Maslow’s hierarchy of needs’

 Specialist services for children with disabilities and additional needs

 Encouraging inclusive behaviours

Effective communication between families and early childhood staff

Partnerships – Working together in early childhood setting

Different cultures: Connecting and communicating

       Answer all questions in YOUR OWN WORDS and provide references when requested

A colleague tells you that they think there is too much focus on making curriculum decisions with a view to including children with diverse or additional needs. What would you tell them?
Social and education inclusion is a fundamental right of every citizens of a particular state – be it a normal child or a person with additional needs (often referred to as special child). It’s unworthy of excluding the children with diverse or additional needs as this would worsen their conditions; and would deepen the sorrows of them as well as their families. As per the guidelines of ‘inclusive strategy’ followed in Australia; the curriculum should focus more on including content which could be consumed by all of the segments of students. There are many such programs and initiatives which are strategized to ensure ECEC is culturally and linguistically relevant. In addition, the school could have options to support families of students with disabilities etc. Now, with this backdrop; there may be arguments that the educational needs of special children or children with additional needs could be taken up in silo and as a separate entity as opposed to have a generic educational curriculum which suits for all. While this argument may make sense to a certain extent; still this is another way of advocating exclusion. On one hand, the specially-abled child would get the requisite education but on the other hand, they would be secluded and excluded from the common mass – which could be again counter-productive. In addition to this, another important factor advocating the idea of having curriculum decisions with a view and focus on all inclusion is that the students at their tender age would develop the required emotion and compassion towards other sections of the society which in a way would be instrumental in the all-round development of all the students. Therefore, the message to the colleague or anyone who feels that there is too much focus on having curriculum discussions keeping in mind universal inclusion is that this would be beneficial for both the normal students in terms of developing the empathy and compassion towards the other section; and also to appreciate what they have; as well as to the special children in terms of feeling included, learning relevant skills and gradually moving on from the misery of having a special need.
Assessor’s comment:    
A parent and educator do not believe that a particular child has the capacity to succeed in learning skills such as how to write their name or how to count to 20. What might happen in this example?
Educational courses or curriculum designs, or even the pedagogy should not be only aimed at teaching specific numerical, quantitative or specific measurable skills (such as writing names, counting numbers, adding/subtracting digits and so on). And more so, for specially-abled child, the pedagogy should be targeted at building behavioural skills and specific motor skills so that the child feels comfortable in the environment of the institute and feel homely amongst the educators and helpers working there. Once this is established, and the child yearns to come to the educational institute to engage and feel included in the eco-system; that is when he or she would be more conducive or open to learning key skills. Therefore, for parents or educators feeling that a particular child (owing to having certain infirmities) would not be able to cope with the learning curriculum or not be able to acquire certain skillsets; it is important to understand that not doing so would not help either; rather would worsen the chances of the child moving on in his life by keeping back the baggage of his or her infirmity. Social and educational inclusion may not yield immediate results in terms of the number of skills acquired by the child; but would definitely hone the child and make him feel better and more confident to dwell with the future challenges that life has in store for him or her.
Assessor’s comment:  
What do you think the benefits of working in partnership with families, communities and other services and agencies in support of children might be? Provide at least five examples. You must provide references, i.e. cite your source, e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Epstein, J. L. and K. Salinas. (2012) explains a research-based framework developed and designed in the John Hopkins University describing the six types of involvements which is instrumental in shaping a child’s educational and social growth & well-being – communicating, parenting, volunteering, decision making, learning at home and community collaboration. The entire value system provided by these six involvements helps offer a wide plethora of activities ranging from family, community and school to enable meet the needs and demands of students. OECD on Australian Education framework mentions that many states and territories are devising their curriculum in a way so as to include parents and other communities into the curriculum. The EYLF framework developed by the Australian state & territory government takes periodic inputs from the childhood academics and symposiums to ensure inclusion of family and community into the overall partnership model. Zinth, K. (2015) performs an empirical research on a total 17 states wherein all the districts within these states have been mandated to employ parental policies in school education. In addition, there were seven states in the United States which has mandated schools in the region to strategize and develop policies which take into consideration parent-community partnerships in bettering school improvement programs and initiatives. In addition, the legislation also feels that involving parents & community in the overall educational upbringing of a student would largely reduce illiteracy as well as school drop-outs as well. Belfield, C. R. and H.M. Levin, H.M. (2007) extends the research made by Zinth (mentioned above) claiming parent-community relationship and intervention is a major deterrent to students dropping out from schools. Also, a strong relationship and bonding between school, family and community leads to highly motivated students. This partnership works well at all levels – be it elementary or secondary levels. In addition, research also shows that this partnership proves beneficial for fostering educational inclusion amongst minority class as well. Henderson, A., K. Mapp, V. Johnson, and D. Davies. (2007), however, has observed an interesting pattern in this partnership wherein the degree of involvement of parents slowly and gradually phases out as the student progresses to higher standards; and as the student reaches middle school; the parental interventional ceases. This has been cited by administrators and school authorities as one of the fundamental reasons behind lack of educational efficacies in nations. Wanat, C. (2012) details out on the above concern raised parents limiting their involvement as the student reaches middle school by charting out the key roadblocks or inhibitors of parental involvement. A few of the plausible reasons discussed are intense schedule of parents leading to no time to attend school events, communication gap or cultural differences with school authorities or lack of resources to combat the increasing complexities as the student progresses to higher standards. References Epstein, J. L. and K. Salinas.2012. School and Family Partnerships Encyclopedia of Education Research, 6th edition, New York: Macmillan. Zinth, K. 2015. Parental Involvement in Education. State Notes, Education Commission of the States. Denver. See www.ecs.org Belfield, C. R. and H.M. Levin, H.M. 2007. The Price We Pay: Economic and Social Consequences of Inadequate Education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press Henderson, A., K. Mapp, V. Johnson, and D. Davies. 2007. Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York: The New Press. Wanat, C. 2012. Meeting the needs of single-parent children: School and parent views differ, NASSP Bulletin, 76(543): 43-48.
Assessor’s comment:  
In your own words describe how as educators you can:Make curriculum decisions that promote the inclusion and participation of all childrenChoose strategies that encourage participationIdentify additional resources or information to further develop and/or adapt curriculum and knowledge to meet additional needsReview and adapt service delivery to meet the needs of children Strengthen partnerships with families, communities and other agenciesReflect on their practices and develop more equitable and effective ways to work with all children The following website may assist you: http://files.acecqa.gov.au/files/Information_Sheets/QualityImprovementPlan.pdf You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source, e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Making curriculum decisions to promote inclusion of all children The design of the curriculum depends upon the stage of education as well – i.e. whether it is elementary school, middle school or secondary/higher-secondary school. Depending on the stage; the curriculum design would be different. Now, while middle and secondary schools are much focussed towards building certain skillsets and preparing the students for an aspiring career; the elementary school education is where the curriculum needs to cater to the diverse needs of all students as a few students may be better prepared to tackle as compared to others. Hence, the curriculum for elementary schools should be more activity-based wherein the students understand the basic motor skills and gets the social & emotional touch & quotient before they are exposed to mathematical formulae and scientific theories. EYLF – participation with early childhood education groups As per the ‘Early Year Learning Framework’ as devised by Australian Education Department; forms a major part of the ‘National Quality Framework’ for early educational care and childhood programs. One of the most important initiatives to encourage participation from other members of the family is the ‘Child Care Access Hotline’. This initiative is to provide the parents and family with a hotline number for any information or feedback on any child care services which the government of Australia is providing to students. Strategy to encourage participation The strategy or tactic followed to encourage participation starts from the very beginning i.e. environment & aesthetics of the institute and the place wherein the curriculum is delivered to students. A traditional chair & desk approach may not encourage participation to a great deal; and also, students would get comfortable with only a small set of friends or people stationed near them. Alternatively, the idea should be to have an open but secure place without any obstacles wherein the students can move around, mix and interact with others, learn things by doing and not by reading or writing. The same holds true for higher education as well – wherein the pedagogy should focus on more group activities, laboratory assignments such that students not only get the practical implementations of the concepts but also learn to collaborate, empathize and work as a team. (GRZ (2007)) Additional resources or information to improve curriculum to meet additional needs Resources required to improve curriculum can be majorly two-fold – first is hiring of experts in the field of teaching & content delivery so that the same content can be delivered in a more practical and involving manner. And, second is the addition of new and more relevant content to bring in a more realistic view to the existing educational content. A few examples of additional resources which could be required are mentioned below – Group projects in live projects in the field of diverse domains such as agriculture, science, commerce, history etc. could work wonders for students who would be exposed to the real-life problem statements; and how can theories enable solve such problemsSite-visits to science exhibitions, museums, art galleries etc. to expose them to the various possibilities of knowledge Review & adapt service delivery to meet the needs of students As mentioned, and highlighted in the previous sections, that the need & relevance of service delivery is crucial in elementary education as the diversity of students and the variance in their potential to grasp is the highest in that point in time. As the students progresses in their school education; they become conditioned to the routine and then gradually all of them moves to the same scale somewhere towards the middle school level. One way to cater to this is to have a healthy teacher to student ratio during the elementary school level; so that the teacher is able to individually address the needs of each student which would not be possible in case too many students are assigned to a single teacher. Apart from that, there are child counsellors as well for differently-abled students whose grasping powers may be conventionally less. (Helander, E. (2013)) Strengthen partnerships with family, community and other agencies This is an important factor; and has been approved by multiple researches in different cities and states. Students have shown higher levels of motivation and engagement in case schools engages family and community in the overall delivery mechanism and value-systems. In addition to that, research has also shown a considerable decline in school drop-outs as a result of a closely inter-twined relationship between family, community and other agencies. However, there has been instances wherein the participation from family significantly reduces as and when the student progresses towards middle school. Therefore, it is on the onus of the school legislation & authority to counsel parents and family to make them understand the impact that their involvement could have on the overall growth of their kids. QIAS principles The QIAS principles form a major part of the ECEC regulations wherein all schools and educational institutes are mandated to exchange information between parents and faculty as an attempt to encourage parental involvement and engagement in the overall educational framework of the child. In addition to that, there are other policies as well such as ‘The Aboriginal Student Support and Parent Awareness (ASSPA)’ which is aimed at resourcing the parent community targeting at the pre-school and other elementary stages of education. Reflect on practices and develop equitable methods to engage all children Generally, traditional schools are more engaged in the rudimentary format of education wherein students assemble in a classroom, sits in order, a teacher walks in, delivers content, and then there are written assessments at the end of each period (quarter or half year depending upon school) based on which students are adjudicated. This method though equal for all, may not be equitable as different students would have different skillsets. There may be students who are innovative and have amazing imagination skills but is not good at memorising theories and literature. Therefore, if such minds are placed in the same assessment standards; a raw talent may go waste. The first step to this is to have a low teacher to student ratio so that the teacher is able to track the progress of each student on an individual basis; and then design multiple modules or assessment criteria with different weightages so that it fits for all. References GRZ (2007). 2007 Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka, Zambia: GRZ Ministry of Education. GRZ (2003). 2010 Census of Population and Housing: Zambia Analytical Report, Volume 10. Lusaka, Zambia: GRZ Central Statistical Office. Retrieved from www.zamstats.gov.zm Helander, E. (2013). Prejudice and dignity: An introduction to communitybased rehabilitation. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Joynson, R.B. (2014). Psychology and common sense. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Assessor’s comment:    
A. Reflect on UNICEF’s The right to participation (www.unicef.org/crc/files/Right-to-Participation.pdf) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Explain how your service philosophy, policies and procedures link to this international legislation. Discuss:Inclusion, equity and diversityThe need for understanding different backgrounds, experiences, and needs of families in exceptional circumstances or with additional needs B. Link the principles of inclusion and participation to a Principle, Practice and Outcome of the Early Years Learning Framework. You must provide references, i.e. cite your source, e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details for basic referencing can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
With reference to the factsheet to ‘the rights to participation’, the UNICEF declares that all child are free to participate in decision making which could be relevant to their life; as well as in relation to family, community and the school. Also, the right to participation in decision making is complemented with clear commitments of changing the decision into a reality. Keeping this in view, the following policies and philosophies is aligned to the doctrines as prescribed in the right to participation – The school would provide equal opportunities in terms of admission to all aspiring applicants; with complete transparency of the admission procedureThere is a dedicated student committee wherein students are empowered to share their opinion on school operations; which is directly foreseen by the principal of the school.The assessment mechanism has been designed in a way that it includes components corresponding to the diverse skillsets of the individual – and it takes into input exceptional acumen in certain niche areas as well In the context of early years’ learning (i.e. applicable for students prior to 5 years of age); the importance of inclusion and participation is very important as the diversity amongst students are the maximum at this point in time. Different students from different cultures, background comes together to learn and engage with each other. Therefore, the pedagogy in early years’ learning should be extremely interesting, and activity-oriented wherein they lean to gel well with different students, understand how to collaborate, be empathetic towards pains & pleasures of others; and so on. (GRZ (2003). 2010) Equity and diversity Cultural and social diversity is a common phenomenon in Australia primarily due to the fact that less than 10% of the overall population are indigenous Australian while majority of the population are entrants from different countries and cultures. In addition to these diversities; another section of diversity comes from the students with certain impairments – be it in the line of health or nutrition, or disabilities and so on. Therefore, to address these diversity complications; the education department of Australia has taken firm steps to ensure inclusion of all in its educational programs directing schools and other educational institutes to not distinguish between students belonging to any particular diverse communities or status. References GRZ (2007). 2007 Educational Statistical Bulletin. Lusaka, Zambia: GRZ Ministry of Education. GRZ (2003). 2010 Census of Population and Housing: Zambia Analytical Report, Volume 10. Lusaka, Zambia: GRZ Central Statistical Office. Retrieved from www.zamstats.gov.zm Helander, E. (2013). Prejudice and dignity: An introduction to communitybased rehabilitation. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Joynson, R.B. (2014). Psychology and common sense. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Assessor’s comment:    

A. Following are five family differences related to capacity and ability that might be represented in your service:Single mum with four childrenStay-at-home dadA parent with a physical disabilityA child on the autism spectrumTwo children living with their grandparents For each family, explain how this difference makes the child’s home life unique B. Describe one experience you could provide in your service that would help children celebrate the richness of society. It should be based on the differences you discovered in question 1 C.. Link the experience from question 2 to an EYLF outcome You must provide references, i.e. cite your source, e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Considering the above options given in the question; the most important and critical factor which would be impacted is the contribution or involvement of parents of a guardian to the overall educational conditioning of a student. Now, let’s discuss on each of the situations in the section given below – (Dawes, A., Bray, R., & vand der Merwe, A. (2007)) Single mum with four children – In this, the participation and focus of the single mum for each of their four children is a major concern. Assuming that all four kids would be of a similar age; and the single mum needs to take care of the finances as well; she would find very little time to collaborate and focus on the educational need of each of her children. In this situation, a service could be provided wherein the mum would be sent a progress report or feedback once every month on the performance of each of her kids. This would help her track their growth and performance in a reliable and easy mannerStay at home dad – Although in this case, he onus of managing finances would be on the mum; still the dad is available to take care of the educational needs of the students – including understanding design of curriculum, regular progress report of the student and so on. A service which can be provided to this category is to involve the dad in the course design procedure specifically in the early years’ education (less than 5 years).Parent with physical disability – This could be one of the reasons why parents may opt out from collaborating in school events, and child’s educational initiatives; as the parent would avoid meeting school authorities and others with the disability. In such a situation, the school can provide services such as sending progress reports to parents via electronic media, having periodic conversations to discuss the challenges faced by the student and so on.Child on autism – This is a major challenge – although there are multiple legislations and doctrines mandating schools to practice and advocate complete inclusion; there are a few wherein these special children are considered in separate schools. In such cases, the curriculum design is important – the focus should not be on teaching the autistic student to count numbers or write his/her name and so on. Rather, the service should emphasis in engaging him more, making him feel included, teaching him basic motor skills, and making him participate in the activities.Two children living with their grandparents – Depending upon the age & acceptance of the grandparents; their involvement in the educational wellbeing of the student would depend. In such a scenario; the school should send periodic progress reports to their parents via electronic media so that they could keep a check on their child’s progress. In addition, the school can also invite the grandparents for parent-teacher meeting, helping them with the progress of the children, key challenges and plausible ways of improving the same. References Dawes, A., Bray, R., & vand der Merwe, A. (2007). Monitoring child well-being: A South African rights-based approach. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). Desai, A.B. (1986). National/provincial tables. In D. Nabuzoka (Ed.), Reaching disabled children in Zambia: Reports and other articles on various aspects of the National Campaign to Reach Disabled Children (1980–1985) (pp. 36–50). Lusaka, Zambia: University of Zambia, Institute for African Studies (mimeo)
Assessor’s comment:  
  Children are decorating hearts to give to their mothers for mothers’ day. You are aware that one child has two fathers rather than a mother and a father. What could you do to show respect for children’s family backgrounds in this circumstance?
  Giving gifts or pleasantries to family and friends on a particular occasion is an indication or manifestation of the love & affection that the person has for that individual – it’s independent of gender or orientation of the person. Similarly, in this case, when all children are decorating hearts for their mothers on ‘mother’s day’; the child having two fathers should be made happy & fortunate of the fact that he has two fathers who fulfils the love & responsibility of a mother as well – which means that the child has two fathers and two mothers as opposed to others who has only one father and mother. Therefore, in this situation, the child should be encouraged to decorate two hearts for both of his fathers as it is them who are fulfilling each and every responsibility of a mother. Hence, the child’s family background & orientation can be paid respect.
  Assessor’s comment:  
Case Study – Abena and Saili (both 5) are playing in the home corner. They are playing out a scene where they have come home from work and they are getting ready to cook dinner. Simon moves to the play area and asks Abena and Saili if he can play too. Abena pushes him out the entrance of the home corner, saying, ‘You can’t be in our family; you have the wrong colour skin!’ She points to her dark-skinned arm. “We have a mum and dad anyway.’Describe how you would respond to this situation. Consider the following:Issues of fairnessOpportunities to learn about similarities and differences and how we can live togetherEngaging children in discussions about respectful and equal relationsElement 5.1.1 National Quality Standard states that’ Responsive and meaningful interactions build trusting relationships which engage and support each child to feel secure, confident and included’. This suggests that you must provide an environment that reflects the lives of the children, their families and the local community. It also relates to how your service upholds children’s right to their culture, identity, ability and strengths within the curriculum. Explain what an authorised officer would see in your service that demonstrates this Element in practice. Consider: PhilosophyPoliciesProceduresWorkplace practicesCurriculum decisions   You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
The key question to cater to here is that how the two children at a tender age of 5 years learned to demarcate individuals depending on the colour of skin – and to conclude that a dark skin is a demeaning factor as compared to bright skin. This is a perfect case of parental influence on the behaviour of a child; it is mandatory and critical for parents to impart the correct set of education and gestures at this tender age without which the child would grow with negative sentiments which in turn could inhibit their behavioural factors at a later stage. Education on policies concerning discrimination There are various policies related to discrimination of child and students in schools and otherwise; a few of them are mentioned below for references – Convention 156 of the International Labour organization, National Competition Policy and the Disability discrimination act of 1992 as stated by Commonwealth – all of which has a standing on the ECEC guidelines which govern the educational department of Australia. Therefore, the need here for schools is to educate students at a tender age on these policies so that they can learn the negative implications on discrimination. More so, parents and staff should refrain from any sort of discrimination so as to ensure that the students do not learn the same trait. However, responding to this situation at hand – (Dawes, A., Bray, R., & vand der Merwe, A. (2007)) References Dawes, A., Bray, R., & vand der Merwe, A. (2007). Monitoring child well-being: A South African rights-based approach. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC). Desai, A.B. (1986). National/provincial tables. In D. Nabuzoka (Ed.), Reaching disabled children in Zambia: Reports and other articles on various aspects of the National Campaign to Reach Disabled Children (1980–1985) (pp. 36–50). Lusaka, Zambia: University of Zambia, Institute for African Studies (mimeo)
Assessor’s comment:  
  Choose one culture represented in Australian society (eg Japanese, Italian, Greek or Indian) and describe examples of at least five activities that children might participate in to explore the richness that diversity contributes to society.
  There are a multitude and variety of cultures which thrives in the Australian society in addition to their natives such as Italian, Japanese, Indian, European and so on. For this question, let’s focus on the ‘Indian’ society in terms of the activities of interest – Social events & gatherings – Indians by nature are very inclusive in nature wherein they prefer social gatherings, enjoying and having fun with friends, family and extended family and so on. Hence, a child in this community of society would be interested in playing with friends, attending social gatherings and so onCultural performances – Indians are very culturally oriented wherein in addition to academics, majority of them are trained in at least one form of art such as dance, singing, drama, theatres and so on. Therefore, in this society, a child would be involved in learning some form of dance (hip-hop, classical etc.) or may be learn dramatics and so onExcursions, school-trips – This is also a good mode of learning and respecting diversity in the sense that students get to know each other which is not possible in the routine school hours (wherein the focal point is generally academics). Spending quality time, doing group work such as setting of tents, arranging food etc. help develop the behavioural and collaborative skillsets of studentsChild-sports – The Indian community is extremely passionate about sports as well – specifically cricket and soccer. Therefore, children can participate in sports which is also an effective way of learning collaboration and how to work as a team and achieve a common goalAcademics (group assignments, projects) – Here, the curriculum design of schools come to play. Schools should be very progressive in their curriculum design and ensure to include both individualistic as well as collectivistic parameters in the design. In this way, students would learn to work as a team, appreciate the diversity in the team, take advantage of each other’s strengths, cover-up each other’s weaknesses; and drive a common objective.
  Assessor’s comment:    


Consider how you, as an educator, will promote children’s learning of how to respond to diversity with respect. Use the criteria on EYLF pg27 to aid your reflections.
 Acceptance and acknowledgement of diversity can only be instilled and imbibed at a tender age – therefore, it is critical for the school authorities and educational legislation to strategize the learning experiences and curriculum and pedagogy as well for the early years’ learners as this is the ripe age to develop the required emotional intelligence & tolerance which would enable him to accept and embrace diversity in a large way. The EYLF (Early Years’ Learning Framework) provides a series of frameworks, principles and practices which is aimed at enhancing the learning path of children prior to the age of 5 years. Now, taking of diversity – it corresponds to a multitude of factors – Gender diversityDiversity in cultures & backgroundsNationality & languageClanAbility (autistic child, child with any other disability etc.) All of these differences need to be taken into perspective into designing any curriculum. A possible step could be to organize group activities wherein students from diverse background are placed into a single group. This would ensure collaboration amongst diverse students belonging to multiple backgrounds, speaking different languages etc. This would also ensure high degree or tolerance and empathy towards diverse people as well. Disability legislation The disability legislation act of the Australian government prevents any schools or other institutes to discriminate amongst students on the basis of a disability – this includes provision of any services, or any other facilities. Therefore, every student irrespective of their physical orientation has the right to receive the required facilities which other normal students get. The EYLF has provision for the same wherein it instructs all students not to distinguish between themselves on grounds of disabilities; or any sort of abuse. The laws against prevention of abuse is extremely strict and binding on everyone.
Assessor’s comment:  
  What Barriers to learning might children have? You must provide references, i.e. cite your source, e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing can be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Despite making attempts to create a conducive environment for children to foster and grow; there are certain barriers which prevent students from engaging and learning new skills & traits; a few are mentioned below for reference – (Helander, E. (2013)) Language barrier – Different cultures & ethnicity (also depends on nationality) speak different languages as their mother tongue. Therefore, students who are not well-versed in the local or native language are at a disadvantage from both educational as well as social perspectives.Ethnicity & Race – Accessibility to quality schools & education could be a plausible factor of ethnicity & race of the particular individual. In fact, there are surveys conducted in 2005 which claims that white students have a better exposure and accessibility to technology & infrastructure as compared to non-white students.Physical disability – This is also a common barrier of learning – be it major physical disability such as hearing impairment, blindness etc. or even minor disabilities such as stammering etc. These disabilities not only have an impact on their grasping power but also, they feel an inferiority complex amidst other students. References Helander, E. (2013). Prejudice and dignity: An introduction to communitybased rehabilitation. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Joynson, R.B. (2014). Psychology and common sense. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Kangwa, P., Bonati, G., Chalker, P., & Scotchmer, C. (2013). Learning together in the Mpika inclusive education project. London: Child-to-Child Trust (limited circulation report).
Assessor’s comment:  


There is a 5-month-old baby in the nursery of the early childhood education and care service where you work. The baby has been happy and settled since first coming to the service setting at three and a half months of age. You notice that the baby is increasingly unsettled and cries a lot more than they used to do. You address all the possible reasons the baby might be unhappy, but they still have difficulty settling when in the facility. The baby does not appear to be running a fever but is persistently restless. You note also that they seem to have stopped smiling and cooing behaviour they were showing up until last week. You suspect the child has or has developed a barrier to learning. What should you do?
It’s difficult to understand the mindset and preferences of babies more because they can’t speak and express their minds – nor are their expressions clear and distinct. Now, in the given case scenario; the 5-month baby who was initially happy and enjoying in the nursery suddenly appears to be sad and disgruntled; there could be several reasons around it starting from the baby feeling unwell to change of personnel in the nursery to any other baby who could be causing nuisance and so on. In order to address this issue; the first step should involve the nursery faculty talking with the parents of the baby on possible reasons as to why the baby seem restless in the nursery. It could be sleeping issues, or any other health issues and so on which the parents would be able to inform. In case the parents are not able to provide any such indications of the possible cause; the next step is to track the activities that the baby is subject to, people that are serving the baby and so on. It could be also possible that the baby may have got bored with the same routing or curriculum for the past 3-4 months. Therefore, the nursery could organize different events wherein they can engage the babies and so on.
Assessor’s comment:  


Case Study – Molly is 2 years old and is about to commence her orientation process at a service. Molly is hearing impaired and hears only some sounds. She has no language skills and does not respond to sound; however, she does know some Auslan communication. Molly’s mother is a confident parent who is positive about Molly’s entry into the service.How would you go about developing a holistic understanding of Molly’s particular needs? ConsiderWho you might discuss Molly’s needs withHow you might collect data about MollyHow you might use the data to inform your actionsWho would you contact to gain more information about Molly?How do your service policies and procedures apply to this situation You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Given the particular situation; one of the major positives is that Molly’s mother is positive and hopeful of the fact that despite the impairments that she has at a tender age; Molly would be able to shine in the service. Now, from a service provider perspective; the following factors need to be taken into consideration – Discussing Molly’s needs – The best person to discuss the needs of Molly would be her mother as she knows her in and out; and more so, she would be able to understand the implicit need of her daughter. Also, the service would be able to gather data & information on how Molly is behaving at home as well and therefore, better track the improvementsCollect data about Molly – As mentioned in the case that Molly is about to hear only specific types of sounds; therefore, the first level data can be collected from her reactions when those sounds are played before her. A child counsellor needs to be appointed in the service who would try to communicate with Molly in sound which she recognizes and gestures to make her understand the communication. In doing so, her reactions and respond to these gestures could be locatedUsing these data to inform more actions – The service or the program designed for the child would be iterative in nature – i.e. based on the response that Molly gives to the initial phases or initiatives; the future course of actions would be determined. Once the service receives certain kinds of response to some sounds, signals or gestures; then that would be considered the base to understand what she feels, whether she is able to hear some noise or is it complete blank, how is she comprehending the sound; and so, on Family engagement & support The key to handling this case is to foster support and engagement for family specifically due to the reason that Molly is merely a two year old child; therefore, extracting information or relevant data from her behaviour would be extremely confusing & challenging as well. Therefore, the agency must involve regularly with the parents to understand her behaviour and acceptance to their training program; and accordingly, cater the future programs in accordance to the same. In such kind of a situation; it is important for the service provider to have an indicative design (and not a rigid process in place which suits all). The reason behind this is that the corrective measures for different people are different; therefore, depending upon the response that the impaired child gives to the initial initiatives; the future course of action should be decided. (Joynson, R.B. (2014)) References Helander, E. (2013). Prejudice and dignity: An introduction to communitybased rehabilitation. New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Joynson, R.B. (2014). Psychology and common sense. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Kangwa, P., Bonati, G., Chalker, P., & Scotchmer, C. (2013). Learning together in the Mpika inclusive education project. London: Child-to-Child Trust (limited circulation report).
Assessor’s comment:  

If a child with autism were to begin orientation in your service tomorrow, what strategies could you implement immediately to meet the child’s needs? As yet, you have no other information about the child. Compile a report on:How would you prepare for the childWhat would you tell other educators to be aware of, in relation to how they might support the child, support the parent and prepare the environment?What actions would you take to develop a holistic understanding of the child’s needs?How would you gather information about these needsHow could you encourage participation by reviewing or suggesting adaptations to service delivery to meet these needs? You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Autism is generally considered as a serious developmental disorder wherein the social and interactional skills of a child is seriously challenged; and the child is not able to communicate or express himself in the form of either verbal or even non-verbal communication. Now, considering a case wherein a child with autism requires service; and more so without any information on the child; the below could be a possible strategy of operation – (Mittler, P., & Serpell, R. (2015)) References Mittler, P., & Serpell, R. (2015). Services: An international perspective. In A.M. Clarke, A.D.B. Clarke, & J.M. Berg (Eds). Mental deficiency: The changing outlook. (pp. 715–787). London: Methuen. Mumba, P. (2010). Democratisation of primary classrooms in Zambia: A case study of its implementation in a rural primary school in Mpika. Paper presented at International Special Education Congress 2000, University of Manchester, UK, July 24–28. Retrieved from http://www.isec2000.org.uk/ abstracts/papers_m/mumba_2.htm (accessed 2019)
Assessor’s comment:    
Where might you find the following resources? Include the contact details:Jumbo triangular grip crayonsAsthma trainingA chair system or positioning form for a child who is unable to sit unaided You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
All of these accessories or resources (except the Asthma training) can be found in both online shops as well as offline shops as well; depending upon the convenience of the user. Jumbo triangular grip crayons can be purchased from eBay, online store from Crayons as well as Office Works. They have their stores in Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne as well as Brisbane. One of the contact locations is the Hay street in PerthAsthma training can also be obtained via both offline as well as online route. The official website for Asthma Australia https://www.asthmaaustralia.org.au/national/training/education-and-training-sector-selection contains all relevant information on the trainings both offline (conducted in schools, community etc.) as well as online as wellChair systems or positioning systems for children with cerebral palsy (i.e. who cannot sit without any external aid) can be obtained from web portals such as activeoffices.com.au etc. In addition, there’s also a foundation for Cerebral Palsy wherein they deal in various appliances for specially abled child having impairments in standing or sitting.
Assessor’s comment:

A child who uses a wheelchair is about to start attending the early childhood education and care service you work for. You have been asked to make a list of environmental adaptations that might need to be made to accommodate the child. What would you suggest? You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
There are a few factors which should be catered to in order to ensure the child using a wheel chair faces no logistic issues as well as mental depressions (due to bullying etc.). A few of the suggestions or recommendations which can be put to action in order to foster a healthy environment for the child with a wheel chair (or for that matter with any child with special needs) are – (Mumba, P. (2010)) Taking care of logistic issues – The service needs to allocate a helper for the child who would take care of the needs of the child and enquire from time to time about his whereabouts. In addition, the child should be placed in a proper location in the study so that he doesn’t have to move frequently and so onPsychological factors – It is not an uncommon occurrence that children with special needs or with certain impairments are subject to bullying in the service or school premise. The authorities need to take a strong stand on the same; and have strict measures to prevent any form of bully which involves physical or emotional harassment or misbehaviour. Commonwealth Disability Discrimination Act As per the commonwealth act on disability; the educational institute must provide the requisite services for the child on wheel chair so that he does not feel less than the other students. The law on discrimination prevents all member organizations from indulging in any form of discrimination either in provision of services or admission process as well on grounds of disabilities. References Mumba, P. (2010). Democratisation of primary classrooms in Zambia: A case study of its implementation in a rural primary school in Mpika. Paper presented at International Special Education Congress 2000, University of Manchester, UK, July 24–28. Retrieved from http://www.isec2000.org.uk/ abstracts/papers_m/mumba_2.htm (accessed 2019)
Assessor’s comment:


Design a series of cards using photos, symbols or drawings that you could use to support a child’s understanding of daily routines and events in an education and care service.


 

 

  Assessor’s comment:                    

Scenario – Tessa, 4 years, has completed an orientation process at your service. She has an acquired brain injury and limited hearing. You have met with her specialists and her mother a number of times and gleaned the following information about Tessa:She is not yet toilet trainedShe has limited vocabulary but has not been heard using any speech or making any sounds at your service Tessa is from a single-parent family and she has an older school-aged brother. Her mother is currently trying to toilet train, Tessa. She is also working on Tessa’s vocabulary and is planning to introduce some simple sign language.   You have contacted the local Inclusion Support Programs to gain funding, education and support and have met with the professional support coordinator (PSC). Write up your own support and inclusion plan. You will be required to source your own template. You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
The case situation deals with a 4-year child Tessa who has an acquired bran issue due to which she is unable to understand when she would require to visit the toilet; as well as has limited communication skills wherein she is not able to express herself via any word or sound at the service centre. Her parents are extremely positive about her wellbeing; and is in regular strive to make her train on toilet as well as improve her vocab skills to a position wherein she can communicate basic requirements. With this context, the plan is to draft a letter to the local inclusion support program to fund her education and support that she needs to lead a normal life. The letter must have precise information of the medical tests done on her confirming that she has a rare kind of a mental disease due to which she is difficult to be toilet trained; and is almost silent for most parts of the day. She is absolutely not responsive to any verbal or non-verbal communication. (Parekh, P.K., & Serpell, R. (2013)) The letter must categorically call out the steps or initiatives taken by the parents to train her and improve her condition citing the cost details of the treatment. And, then request for funding from the support programs to ensure that her healing process doesn’t stop there; and they continue to treat her to enable her to learn the basic motor skills to lead a decent life. References Nabuzoka, D. (2016b). The pilot follow-up project for disabled children in Katete district: A report. In D. Nabuzoka (Ed.), Reaching disabled children in Zambia (pp. 103–122). University of Zambia, Institute for African Studies (mimeo). Parekh, P.K., & Serpell, R. (2013). Zambia National Campaign to reach disabled children. National Planning Seminar on the Rationale and Logistics of Specialist Interventions in relation to Community-based Rehabilitation, Report and Recommendations, April. Lusaka: GRZ Ministry of Health (mimeo)
Assessor’s comment:    

Why is it necessary to conduct regular reviews of plans?
Plans or targets are generally created or designed with the foresight or prediction of how the system or environment could play, in combination with the past results. Now, it is an obvious fact that what happened in the past may not happen in the future. This is more so relevant when the plan is of designing a service program or a curriculum design for children with special needs. Now, in such cases, all the samples are unique in nature and there is no single method or prototype which suits or fits in all cases. Therefore, the need to conduct regular reviews and plans is important in the way that the responsiveness of the students to the particular plan is tested at regular intervals of time so as to assure high degree or receptiveness and relevance of these initiatives. There could be a situation wherein a particular initiative which worked wonders for previous students may not be accepted or responded by another specially equipped child. Therefore, in such cases, those initiatives or plans must be reviewed and modified as the case may be – to ensure that the content is up to date and relevant to the needs of the students.
Assessor’s comment:  
A 3.5 year old has epilepsy. They have never been away from their parents before but have been enrolled to start next week with the service provider for which you work. The child’s mother will return to part-time work on Monday, Tuesday and Thursday each week. Give a brief outline of what you would do to support the child’s entry to the early childhood education and care service. You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
First and foremost, the degree or level of epilepsy needs to be understood i.e. how serious is the child’s disease and how contagious is the disease. In case of contagious diseases or ailments; the child needs to be placed in a secluded place till the time the disease is cured as it could lead to others having the same disease as well. Also, the mother of the child would be available on three days in a week which means that there has to a dedicated guide or helper assigned to the 3.5-year-old child who would continuously take care of him – and report any extremism in his or her health condition. Now, coming to the educational needs of the child; quite similar to other child with certain impairment – the curriculum design would focus majorly on developing motor skills and making the child enjoy and be comfortable in the company & environment of the service provider. Once the child feels his own in the place; the development & acceptance to the programs would grow multi-fold; and the child would start responding positively to the various initiatives delivered in the service premises. (Parekh, P.K., & Serpell, R. (2013)) References Parekh, P.K., & Serpell, R. (2013). Zambia National Campaign to reach disabled children. National Planning Seminar on the Rationale and Logistics of Specialist Interventions in relation to Community-based Rehabilitation, Report and Recommendations, April. Lusaka: GRZ Ministry of Health (mimeo)
Assessor’s comment:  
Part A –  Scenario – You work in a room with 5-year-old children and are supported by two other educators. You are the leader in the room and are responsible for developing the plans for the children and sharing these with the other educators. Today, you have been working with Tessa, who has a physical disability. Tessa is learning to move her body from one place to another. Tessa is very strong-willed and is determined to reach a milestone. She has almost succeeded in her task and although she needs occasional breaks, she seems to be enjoying the challenge. You are tired, however, and at times you feel frustrated. What would your next step be in this situation? Consider the following: The child’s needsYour needsThe success of the strategyThe role of othersThe level of support provided for the children
Child needs – The above case situation reveals that the child has started accepting the service organization; and is receptive to the various programs which are done there to engage the child; and ensure that the child responds positively and feels comfortable and include din the environment. Now, after this step; it is important for the educators or helpers there not to lose track and keep the energy going so as to prevent the child to get back to the stage where he/she initially was which could be extremely counter-productive. Therefore, the need of the child here is to continue with the interesting activities and challenges and engage the child more. More so, innovate new skills and activities which could interest the child and bring out more from him or her Your needs – As mentioned, it is not uncommon for the educator to feel tired and frustrated. However, it is important to not show frustration in front of the student or child – rather the educator may opt for a couple of days off to rejuvenate and then again be back with new energy and empathy for the child Success of the strategy – The success is a preliminary one – the ultimate aim is to cure the child suffering from the ailment. The success means that the child is well receptive to the activities which are organized in the service organization Role of others – There are many other people involved in the wellbeing of the child in addition to the educator – the helper who helps the child in doing basic stuffs, the governess who helps in feeding her and changing her dresses; and so on. In all – the overall level of support for the children would determine the overall success of the main agenda.
Part B – Scenario – today you receive a report from a specialist. The report included several suggested goals and objectives for a child with additional support needs. What would your next step be in this situation? Consider the following: Your service policies,  procedures and work practicesThose involved in supporting the childActions that need to be taken to put the goals and objectives into place  
Your service policies, procedures and work practices – The first stage here is to measure or review the effectiveness of the initiatives basis the results provided – and therefore, cater the future stages of the initiatives or program in accordance to the same. Those involved in supporting the child – This also required an audit as to whether the personnel – helpers, educators are spending sufficient time and energy on the child or are they simply catering to the syllabus or completing the class without the emotional connect which is required to heal such a child. Actions that need to be taken to put the goals and objectives into place – Basis the key findings of the above two parameters; the service would then charter the future actions in terms of the key requirements or modifications that are required to be made in the existing processes or curriculum designs. Depending on the response of the children, the pedagogy needs to be modified as well. The service organization may also consider hiring certified psychologists as well who would understand the minds of the children and devise mechanisms pertaining to the specific needs of each child.
Assessor’s comment:    
Case Study Monika, a child with serve food allergies, is about to commence care. Louie, an educator, requests that the parents sign a form allowing her to gain access to the Professional Support Coordinator (PSC) and to investigate the Inclusion Support Subsidy (ISS)Patrick has demonstrated consistently difficult behaviour. Elaine, the educator, has spoken to Patrick’s parents but they feel the behaviour is not sereve and that the service’s expectations are too high, Elaine contacts the PSC and requests an assessment of Patrick’s behaviour so a report can be provided to the parents to verify that there is a problemMarcel, an educator, is finding it difficult to provide adequate planning strategies for a child with a mild vision impairment. The educator feels he needs support and contacts the Professional Support Coordinator (PSC) to gain some training For each case, decide whether you think the educator has approached the situation appropriately. Explain why or why not. You must provide references for each section. You must cite your source e.g. Learner guide, website, book, work publication etc. Details  for basic referencing are to be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdG91lhDseA
Case 1 – This case deals with a child who suffers from various food allergies. While the action from Louie is not completely irrelevant; still this is definitely not the correct starting point of analysis. First and foremost; it is important for the educator to understand the food to which the child is allergic to; and the response that the body shows on consuming those foods. Once this is done; medical prescriptions need to be taken on whether this can be potentially corrected; or would it have a harmful impact on the child. The next steps should be an offshoot of these information. (Serpell, R. (2013)) Case 2 – This case deals with Patrick who faces issues in behavioural aspects – however, the parents on consultation with the educator feels that the expectations of the service are too high considering the problem that their child faces is not a severe one. In such a situation, the educator takes the right step wherein she connects with the PSC for a fair assessment and based on the assessment results; future conversations can be based. So, this is the correct approach. (Serpell, R. (2008)) Case 3 – The gesture and decision from the educator is appreciable wherein he is able to understand that the skills he possesses is not relevant and sufficient enough to treat the child with mild vision impairment. So, he requests for trainings for skill upgradation so that he could do his job in a better way. References Serpell, R. (2013). The significance of schooling: Life-journeys in an African society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Serpell, R. (2009). Opportunities and constraints for research on education and human development in Africa: Focus on assessment and special education. Prospects, XXIX (3), 349–363. Serpell, R. (2008). Participatory appropriation and the cultivation of nurturance: A case study of African primary health science curriculum development. In P.R. Dasen, & A. Akkari (Eds), Educational theories and practices from the ‘majority world’. New Delhi: SAGE.
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