#### Applications of the physical sciences to Engineering problems

Table of Contents

## Assignment Brief

Unit Number and Title | 03: Engineering Science |

Academic Year | 2021-2022 |

Unit Tutor | T.Jey |

Assignment Title | Applications of the physical sciences to Engineering problems |

Issue Date | 11-10-2021 |

Submission Date | 22-12-2021 |

IV Name & Date | R. Lakshmanan , 04 October 2021 |

Unit Learning Outcomes | |

LO1 Examine scientific data and apply appropriately using computational methods. LO2 Determine parameters within mechanical engineering systems LO3 Explore the characteristics and properties of engineering materials LO4 Analyse applications of A.C./D.C. circuit theorems, electromagnetic principles and properties |

### Scenario:

You are employed as a trainee engineer in a megatronics laboratory and the position requires you to have a fundamental understanding of mechanical and electrical concepts. You have been informed by your potential supervisor that you need to improve and update your knowledge in the following areas: SI units, interpreting data, static and dynamic forces, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, material properties and failure, and circuit theories. Your potential supervisor has set the following tasks in order to assess your suitability to work in the capacity as a trainee engineer.

### Task 1.0

You have been given samples of metals, composite and polymer materials. You are required to carry out tests on one of these materials and present a formal laboratory report. Your senior engineer has asked you to present to an audience an analysis of the scientific data using both computational and qualitative methods using an appropriate software package.

You should ensure that your report includes the following elements:

- The SI units used including prefix notation, symbols and derived units.

- Graphical representations of the quantitative and qualitative data gathered, using appropriate software

- Reflection on the application of the scientific method (demonstrated in your laboratory report) for the testing you carried out
**.**

- An analysis of all the graphical data presented (qualitative and quantitative information from Part 1 and Part 2).

- Full citation/references using an acceptable referencing system.

HNC/HND Engineering 3

### Task 2.0

Your manager wants you to write a formal report on the potential in service conditions that may have caused material failure and the structural properties of the given metals, polymer and composite that you have been investigating in **Task 1.0.**

You should consider the effect of degradation on the appearance of the given materials in task

1.0 and gather qualitative feedback from colleagues on the potential causes of failure. This feedback/data will be presented, using appropriate graphical software within your report.

Your report should reflect on the application of the scientific method (demonstrated in your laboratory report) for the testing you carried out. There should also be an analysis of all the graphical data presented (qualitative and quantitative information from Task 1 and Task 2).

- A description of the structural properties linked to their respective material properties

- An explanation and comparison of the types of degradation including elastic, electrical and magnetic hysteresis

- Investigation of theoretical material properties of metals and non-metals using practical test data

- Full citation/references using an acceptable referencing system.

### Task 3.0

**3.1 **A simply supported beam of length 6m supports a vertical point load of 45kN at a distance of 4m from one end.

4m

45k

R_{1} R_{2}

6m

### Fig 1.0

- Determine the reaction forces at either end.

- Recalculate the reaction forces at either end, taking into account the actual weight of the beam as a UDL. Assume that the mass of the beam is 39Kg/m and g= 9.81 m/s
^{2}

- Examine two engineering applications of buoyancy?

- Discuss briefly the temperature effects on mechanical properties such as a dimensional change, elasto – plastic changes, due to thermal stresses.

- Find the acceleration which will be produced in a body having a mass of 60 kg when a force of 150 N acts on this body by using d’ Alembert’s Principle.

- Compare how changes in the thermal efficiency of a given system can affect its performance.

### Task 4.0

**4.1**

**4.11 **For the network shown in **Fig 2.0**, determine Th’evenin’s equivalent circuit

and the current flowing in the 4 Ω resistor. Assume that the battery has negligible internal resistance.

**4.12. **Use the superposition theorem to find currents *I _{i} _{,} I_{2} *

*and*

**I**of_{3}**Fig 3.0**### Fig 2.0 Fig 3.0

- Show how the following complex waveforms are produced from sinusoidal waveforms.

### A = 10 V.

**Fig 4.0**

**4.31**

A coil of inductance 74 mH and resistance 28 ohms in series with a 50uF capacitor is connected to a 250 V,50 Hz supply. Calculate:

- The current flowing
**ii**The voltage across L and C.

- Sketch the phasor diagram

### 4.32

A coil of resistance 25 Ω and inductance 100 mH is connected series with 0.12 uf capacitor across a 120 V, variable frequency supply. If R is small compare with XL as in radio circuits, Determine:

- the resonant frequency

- the Q – factor at resonance

### 4.41

Explain the operation of a transformer using the principles of electromagnetic induction.

### 4.42

A 300 kVA transformer has a primary winding resistance of 0.4 Ω and a secondary winding resistance of 0.0015 Ω. The iron loss is 2 kW and the primary and secondary voltages are 4 kV and 200 V respectively. If the power factor of the load is 0.78, determine the efficiency of the transformer on full load

**4.51 **Refer to the circuit shown in *Fig 6.0*

Fig 6.0 R = 60 ohms, L = 318.4 mH, C= 15 uF, V= 200V, 50 Hz. Calculate: The current in the coil The current in the capacitor The supply voltage and its phase angle The circuit impedance Sketch the phasor diagram 4.52 Validate the results using simulation packages. |

Assignment has Guidelines for assignment submission4 tasks. Please read all tasks carefully. Final assignment must be submitted on time to be considered for a Distinction grade PLAGIARISM is considered a serious offence and will automatically lead to a FAIL Grade. In the event of similar/identical submissions, please note that both students will be automatically fail the module. |

**Learning Outcomes and Assessment Criteria**

Pass | Merit | Distinction |

LO1 Examine scientific data using both quantitative and qualitative methods | D1 Analyse scientific data using both quantitative | |

and qualitative methods | ||

P1 Describe SI units and prefix notation | M1 Explain how the application of scientific | |

P2 Examine quantitative and qualitative data with appropriate graphical | method impacts upon different test procedures | |

representations | ||

LO2 Determine parameters within mechanical | D2 Compare how changes | |

engineering systems | in the thermal efficiency of | |

a given system can affect | ||

P3 Determine the support reactions of a beam carrying a combination of a | M2 Determine unknown forces by applying d’Alembert’s principle to a | its performance. |

concentrated load and a | free body diagram | |

uniformly distributed load | ||

P4 Use Archimedes’ | ||

principle in contextual | ||

engineering applications | ||

P5 Determine the effects of | ||

heat transfer on the dimensions of given | ||

materials |

Pass | Merit | Distinction |

LO3 Explore the characteristics and properties of engineering materials | D3 Compare and contrast theoretical material properties of metals and non- metals with practical test data | |

P6 Describe the structural properties of metals and non- metals with reference to their material properties P7 Explain the types of degradation found in metals and non-metals | M3 Review elastic and electromagnetic hysteresis in different materials | |

LO4 Analyse applications of A.C./D.C. circuit theorems, electromagnetic principles and properties | D4 Evaluate different techniques used to solve problems on a combined series-parallel RLC circuit using A.C. theory. | |

P8 Calculate currents and voltages in D.C. circuits using circuit theorems P9 Describe how complex waveforms are produced from combining two or more sinusoidal waveforms. P10 Solve problems on series RLC circuits with A.C. theory. | M4 Explain the principles and applications of electromagnetic induction |