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Advanced Analog Engineering Biomedical solution

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PROJECT BRIEF – BIOMEDICAL

Project description

In the field of biomedical engineering one method of measuring the blood pressure of a patient is to use a pressure sensor. In this project you will design and implement an analog / microcontroller system to interface with a resistive pressure sensor. Due to the characteristics of the sensor the resistance variation is very small, therefore you will need to design an interface circuit such that you can make full use of the microcontroller ADC range. Your system  will need to indicate if the pressure is High, Low, or Normal according to a preset threshold pressure. The user must be able to adjust the threshold pressure by varying a potentiometer with the two extreme of the potentiometer representing the highest and lowest possible pressure.

For this project you will have access to the following components:

  • Thermistor, LDR.
  • LED, 4004 diode.
  • DC motor/DC fan.
  • TCRT1000 IR proximity sensor.
  • Ultrasonic sensor.
  • MPU 6050 3-axis accelerometer / gyroscope.
  • Resistive pressure sensor.
  • Transistor: BD139, BC547, 2N7000.
  • Mechanical relay: 12V.
  • 100Ω, 470Ω, 1kΩ, 2.2kΩ, 4.7kΩ, 10kΩ, 22kΩ, 47kΩ, 100kΩ, 470kΩ.
  • 1𝑛𝐹, 10𝑛𝐹, 100𝑛𝐹, 1𝜇𝐹, 10𝜇𝐹.

Report

Write a report to outline your design and implementation of the system. Below is a brief outline on what needs to be covered in each section of the report.

Summary: Summarise the whole report from the introduction to conclusion such that a reader can get a quick idea on the main point of the report.

Introduction: In this section you are required to outline the goal you are trying to achieve in this report. Part of the introduction should also outline the sections in the rest of the report.

System design: Describe your design based on the description of the systems. You must include a system block diagram and system specification as part of your design. In your design you must justify your decision and describe how your design will interface with the micro-controller system.

Test procedures: Outline the test procedures of your design. This part must include testing procedures for each sub- system as well as the final integration test.

Results: Summarise the measured performance of your implementation and comment on whether the system performs according to the problem description.

Conclusion and recommendation: Summarise your results and outline your conclusion of the project. Give recommendation for further improvements.

The assessment breakdown is as follows:

  • Functionality (Pass/Fail): testing procedures, measured performance follows specifications.
  • Quality of design (75%): design, calculation, choice of components and other details related to the project.
  • Quality of prototype (10%): neat implementation, clear identification of input and output, easy to test and debug.
  • Report presentation (10%): organised, professional, language, grammar, and spelling.
  • Career episode (5%): complete a career episode using the provided Excel template.

The final mark of this project will contribute 25% to the final mark of the subject.

The due date for the project report is 21st June, 2021 by submission using the following link on Learn. The report must be submitted in MSWord or PDF format. Make sure the name, date, and version field of the filename is completed before you submit the file.

Solution

Designing Blood pressure sensor using Thermistor

Contents

Summary. 3

Introduction. 4

System Design. 4

Review.. 5

Test Procedure. 6

Explanation of Problem.. 6

Results. 6

Conclusion and Recommendation. 8

Appendix. 9

References. 10

Summary

The goal of this task is to plan and carry out a solid, modest, low controlled, non-nosy, and exact framework that can be worn consistently and screens the indispensable signs and shows the yield to the client’s mobile phone. This information is likewise effectively available by the doctor through remote organization. The objective of this errand wont to be to develop a coffee force, minimal expense, dependable, non-meddling, and non-obtrusive observing machine that might correctly quantify the main signs. A reliable and relentless basic sign observing contraption focused nearer to skilled individuals has been accurately fabricated.Be that because it may, the vital sign estimation was previously not, at now inspected completely due to time constraints. This case diminishes the impediment from different delicate sources. Then, at that point, around then , the PPG circuit is dissected with respect to a matter. The situation is besides associated with the ECG circuit through cathodes, as portrayed inside the “ECG/Heart Rate” region. Testing is finished the use of everything about three lead arrangements for ECG. Blood strain is besides all the while assessed by means of a blood strain screen on the unmistakable arm for evaluation purposes. This task explicitly manages the sign molding and information obtaining of three imperative signs: pulse, circulatory strain, and internal heat level. Internal heat level is estimated inside the ear with a thermistor. The hypothesis, plan strategies, trial results and conversations of these frameworks are introduced.

Introduction

Generally, it had been before a modified to urge these fundamental signs and side effects estimated during a attend the specialist. With propels in therapeutic medication and innovation, this reasoning has adjusted. There are numerous devices available within the market nowadays that empower victims to screen their own personal wellness on a daily foundation from the lightening of their home. These units are having a monstrous effect on wellness care costs as they’re bringing down the time and resources of logical clinical specialists and conveniences needed through patients. Human body temperature changes inside a skinny fluctuate of qualities. Internal heat level are often estimated from particular segments of the body, anyway for this venture, temperature are going to be estimated from the ear because it is probably the foremost right sorts of constitution temperature estimation.

This is positive for each victims and doctors. Patients can uncover their wellness usually and modify their health improvement plan and substantial exercise as required to stay up their vitals in balance. medical aid masters can get section to the present realities from their PC frameworks with the guide of wi-fi local area and may investigate their patients’ vitals at their own special time. within the event that they know irregularities, they will constantly plan a gathering with their patients. This endeavor are often sped up and improved in severa ways. in particular else, the target group for this item are often raised to include people, everything being equal. to realize this, commotion following from development antiquities within the alarms must be diminished. at the present , the sign molding circuits for these sensors are fit as a fiddle on breadboards. These are often made in computer circuit Boards (PCBs) and advanced separating are often brought as far as possible commotion. Likewise, the sensors utilized for estimating ECG are often moved up to stay on anodes. This load of sensors should be remotely identified with the phone and microcontroller, making it joyful and non-nosy for the individual to wear.There aren’t many in-home observing devices within the market that are exact, simple, and ensured to utilize, while being of low worth to the client. the target of this endeavor is to enhance such a gadget.

System Design

The goal of the many task is to support a minimal expense, low force, solid, non-meddlesome, and non-obtrusive basic side effects uncover that procedures and investigations the insights got from sensors to settle on if they’re inside a “ordinary” change and to speak this records to the client’s mobilephone telephone the utilization of Bluetooth and reserve it there.  The objective of this errand wont to be to develop a coffee force, minimal expense, dependable, non-meddling, and non-obtrusive observing machine that might correctly quantify the main signs. A reliable and relentless basic sign observing contraption focused nearer to skilled individuals has been accurately fabricated. Be that because it may, the vital sign estimation was previously not, at now inspected completely due to time constraints. This data would then be ready to be gained by utilizing a wellness care master whenever by wi-fi network.

Fig 1 – Block Diagram of PPG

Review

Starting query wont to be performed to settle on the kinds of essential signs and indications that are mechanically estimated during a attend a specialist. These basic signs and side effects are: physical make-up temperature, beat rate, breathing expense (pace of breathing) and circulatory strain. I noticed some advanced devices purchased that give tantamount observing capabilities as our crucial task. After considering these components, a critical motivation behind this task developed to become to format sensors that might presently don’t exclusively effectively and absolutely show the essential signs, anyway even be practical. This is positive for each victims and doctors. Patients can uncover their wellness usually and modify their health improvement plan and substantial exercise as required to stay up their vitals in balance. medical aid masters can get section to the present realities from their PC frameworks with the guide of wi-fi local area and may investigate their patients’ vitals at their own special time. within the event that they know irregularities, they will constantly plan a gathering with their patients. This endeavor are often sped up and improved in severa ways. in particular else, the target group for this item are often raised to include people, everything being equal. to realize this, commotion following from development antiquities within the alarms must be diminished. at the present , the sign molding circuits for these sensors are fit as a fiddle on breadboards.

Then, a scope of applied sciences that are by and by wont to screen these fundamental signs and side effects are analyzed and therefore the most great detecting techniques for this assignment was once decided. Then, extraordinary sorts of temperature sensors are considered . It wont to be concluded that the foremost beneficial method of estimating blood heat is with the guide of the utilization of a thermistor. the benefits and dangers of the in more than a few of temperature sensors are provided in Appendix B, Figure 27. At long last, variety methodologies of non-intrusive blood strain size had been audited. The 2 fundamental methodologies blood strain are often estimated are the use of an oscillometric arm-sleeve approach and therefore the use of PPG.

Test Procedure

Electrocardiography estimates the electrical undertaking of the guts . The actuation of the coronary heart begins offevolved at the sino-atrial hub that delivers the coronary heart recurrence, at around 70 cycles each moment. This actuation spreads to the legitimate and left atria muscle tissues. At the atrioventricular hub, there’s a reach bent empower the ventricles to load with blood from atrial constriction. The depolarization then, at that time proliferates to the ventricles through the Bundle of His and spreads accessible the Purkinje strands. Engendering of this actuation through these strands as a top quality of your time is given in Appendix C, Figure 28. This prompts the ventricles to agreement and siphons blood to the aorta and to the unwinding of the body. At long last, repolarisation happens and this cycle is rehashed

Internal heat level

Human body temperature changes inside a skinny fluctuate of qualities. Internal heat level are often estimated from particular segments of the body, anyway for this venture, temperature are going to be estimated from the ear because it is probably the foremost right sorts of constitution temperature estimation.

Explanation of Problem

In this venture, one among the obligations is to rearrange and uphold a framework which will quantify the ECG. Proper anodes must be picked and situated at right regions on the body. a symbol molding block is to be intended to sift through commotion and intensification is familiar with stretch out the sign to recognizable levels.

The 2d endeavor is to rearrange and authorize a gadget which will gauge circulatory strain. Heartbeat oximeter are going to be intended to quantify the degree adjustments within the blood. The PPG and ECG will then, at that time be blended to offer a blood strain perusing. The precision of getting vital sign the use of this system must be resolved. A definitive endeavor of this mission is to diagram and placed into impact a temperature size machine which will quantify the ear’s temperature. This must be right to inside ±0.2°C to possess a trustworthy screen.

Results

In the wake of building the PPG circuit, it wont to be around the start investigated with a sinusoidal enter from a segment generator. The voltage enter the circuit was once 5 V for the astounding terminal and destitute individuals terminal was once grounded. The enter wont to be set to twenty mV and in this manner the all out acquire of the circuit was once reduced to 100 to stop drenching. The effects got from this examine are exhibited inside the outline under. As addressed, the low bar decline off repeat of 10 Hz rejects frequencies more than 10 Hz. Then, a scope of applied sciences that are by and by wont to screen these fundamental signs and side effects are analyzed and therefore the most great detecting techniques for this assignment was once decided. Then, extraordinary sorts of temperature sensors are considered . It wont to be concluded that the foremost beneficial method of estimating blood heat is with the guide of the utilization of a thermistor

Then, at that point, a touch plastic bundling is made . it’s a colossal opening through the middle for the individual’s finger. This case diminishes the impediment from different delicate sources. Then, at that point, around then , the PPG circuit is dissected with respect to a matter. The situation is besides associated with the ECG circuit through cathodes, as portrayed inside the “ECG/Heart Rate” region. Testing is finished the use of everything about three lead arrangements for ECG. Blood strain is besides all the while assessed by means of a blood strain screen on the unmistakable arm for evaluation purposes.

This cost is by and by not right, because of reality when assessed the use of a mechanically available crucial sign screen, the SBP wont to be picked to be 119 mmHg. This limit that there’s some segment that rushed a blunder inside the assessments. a reasonable reasoning during this can moreover be the truth that solely one LED is utilized to measure the PPG waveform. this will moreover result during an extraordinary inconsequential charge as against that acquired. Regardless, because of time constraints, this circuit was already not, at now equivalently attempted.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The objective of this errand wont to be to develop a coffee force, minimal expense, dependable, non-meddling, and non-obtrusive observing machine that might correctly quantify the main signs. A reliable and relentless basic sign observing contraption focused nearer to skilled individuals has been accurately fabricated.Be that because it may, the vital sign estimation was previously not, at now inspected completely due to time constraints.

This endeavor are often sped up and improved in severa ways. in particular else, the target group for this item are often raised to include people, everything being equal. to realize this, commotion following from development antiquities within the alarms must be diminished. at the present , the sign molding circuits for these sensors are fit as a fiddle on breadboards. These are often made in computer circuit Boards (PCBs) and advanced separating are often brought as far as possible commotion. Likewise, the sensors utilized for estimating ECG are often moved up to stay on anodes. This load of sensors should be remotely identified with the phone and microcontroller, making it joyful and non-nosy for the individual to wear.

References

  • Anon. Cost of Health Care to reach $172 billion: report. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. Ottawa Citizen, November 14, 2008.

<http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/story.html?id=c18006b1-1406-4bbe-9dbf- c7edaf652d42>

  • T. Gao, D. Greenspan, M. Welsh, R. R. Juang, and A. Alm. Vital Signs Monitoring and Patient Tracking Over a Wireless Network. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, Shanghai, China, September 2005
  • Mundt, Carsten. Lifeguard – A Weareable Vital Signs Monitoring System. NASA AMES Astrobionics, February 2004.

<http://lifeguard.stanford.edu/lifeguard_writeup_medium.pdf>

  • Anon. Spot Vital Signs LXi. WelchAllyn, 2010.

<http://www.welchallyn.com/products/en-us/x-11-ac-100-0000000001118.htm>

  • Vital Signs Monitor. EBay, March 12, 2010.

<http://shop.ebay.ca/?_from=R40&_trksid=m38&_nkw=vital+signs+monitor>

  • Anon. ECG Measurement. Biomedical signals of the human body, 2004.

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